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Translation initiation factor eIF1.2 promotes Toxoplasma stage conversion by regulating levels of key differentiation factors.

Wang F, Holmes MJ, Hong HJ, Thaprawat P, Kannan G, Huynh MH, Schultz TL, Licon MH, Lourido S, Dong W, Brito Querido J, Sullivan WJ Jr, O'Leary SE, Carruthers VB.

Nat Commun. 2024 May 23;15(1):4385. doi: 10.1038/s41467-024-48685-4.

PMID: 38782906

mRNA cap-binding protein eIF4E1 is a novel regulator of Toxoplasma gondii latency.

Holmes MJ, Bastos MS, Dey V, Severo V, Wek RC, Sullivan WJ Jr.

mBio. 2024 May 15:e0295423. doi: 10.1128/mbio.02954-23.

PMID: 38747593

Evaluation of topotecan and 10-hydroxycamptothecin on Toxoplasma gondii: Implications on baseline DNA damage and repair efficiency.

Cristaldi C, Saldarriaga Cartagena AM, Ganuza A, Sullivan WJ Jr, Angel SO, Vanagas L.

Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist. 2023 Nov 24;23:120-129. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpddr.2023.11.004. 

PMID: 38043188

A transcriptional network required for bradyzoite development in Toxoplasma gondii is dispensable for recrudescent disease.

Sokol-Borrelli SL, Reilly SM, Holmes MJ, Orchanian SB, Massmann MD, Sharp KG, Cabo LF, Alrubaye HS, Martorelli Di Genova B, Lodoen MB, Sullivan WJ Jr, Boyle JP.

Nat Commun. 2023 Sep 28;14(1):6078. doi: 10.1038/s41467-023-40948-w.

PMID: 37770433

Histone variant H2B.Z acetylation is necessary for maintenance of Toxoplasma gondii biological fitness.

Vanagas L, Muñoz D, Cristaldi C, Ganuza A, Nájera R, Bonardi MC, Turowski VR, Guzman F, Deng B, Kim K, Sullivan WJ Jr, Angel SO.

Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech. 2023 May 20:194943. doi: 10.1016/j.bbagrm.2023.194943. Online ahead of print.

PMID: 37217032

Srivastava S, Holmes MJ, White MW, Sullivan WJ Jr.

Toxoplasma gondii AP2XII-2 Contributes to Transcriptional Repression for Sexual Commitment.

mSphere. 2023 Feb 14:e0060622. doi: 10.1128/msphere.00606-22.

PMID: 36786611

Walters HA, Welter BH, Moss HC, Villano MA, Orobio-Hurtado R, Sullivan WJ Jr, Temesvari LA.

Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2α Kinases Regulate Virulence Functions, Stage Conversion, and the Stress Response in Entamoeba invadens.

mSphere. 2022 May 31:e0013122. doi: 10.1128/msphere.00131-22. Online ahead of print.

PMID: 35638357

Nardelli SC, Silmon de Monerri NC, Vanagas L, Wang X, Tampaki Z, Sullivan WJ Jr, Angel SO, Kim K.

Genome-wide localization of histone variants in Toxoplasma gondii implicates variant exchange in stage-specific gene expression.

BMC Genomics. 2022 Feb 14;23(1):128. doi: 10.1186/s12864-022-08338-6.

PMID: 35164683

Martynowicz J, Sullivan WJ Jr.

Rebound of cyst number following discontinuation of guanabenz treatment for latent toxoplasmosis.

Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2021 Sep 4;245:111411. doi: 10.1016/j.molbiopara.2021.111411.

PMID: 34492239

Holmes MJ, Padgett LR, Bastos MS, Sullivan WJ Jr.

m6A RNA methylation facilitates pre-mRNA 3'-end formation and is essential for viability of Toxoplasma gondii.

PLoS Pathog. 2021 Jul 29;17(7):e1009335. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1009335. Online ahead of print.

PMID: 34324585

Sullivan WJ Jr, Strathdee SA, Hotez PJ.

Making it personal: science communication for the masses.

Trends Parasitol. 2021 Jun 16:S1471-4922(21)00133-1. doi: 10.1016/

PMID: 34147337

Augusto L, Martynowicz J, Amin PH, Carlson KR, Wek RC, Sullivan WJ Jr. 

TgIF2K-B Is an eIF2α Kinase in Toxoplasma gondii That Responds to Oxidative Stress and Optimizes Pathogenicity.

mBio. 2021 Jan 26;12(1).

PMID: 33500345

Augusto L, Wek RC, Sullivan WJ Jr.

Host sensing and signal transduction during Toxoplasma stage conversion.

Mol Microbiol. 2020 Oct 28. doi: 10.1111/mmi.14634.

PMID: 33118234

Srivastava S, White MW, Sullivan WJ Jr.

Toxoplasma gondii AP2XII-2 Contributes to Proper Progression through S-Phase of the Cell Cycle.

mSphere. 2020 Sep 16;5(5):e00542-20. doi: 10.1128/mSphere.00542-20.

PMID: 32938695

Angel SO, Vanagas L, Ruiz DM, Cristaldi C, Saldarriaga Cartagena AM, Sullivan WJ Jr.

Emerging Therapeutic Targets Against Toxoplasma gondii: Update on DNA Repair Response Inhibitors and Genotoxic Drugs.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2020 Jun 12;10:289. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2020.00289.

PMID: 32656097 

Augusto L, Martynowicz J, Amin PH, Alakhras NS, Kaplan MH, Wek RC, Sullivan WJ Jr.

Toxoplasma gondii Co-opts the Unfolded Protein Response To Enhance Migration and Dissemination of Infected Host Cells.

mBio. 2020 Jul 7;11(4):e00915-20. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00915-20.

PMID: 32636244 

Martynowicz J, Doggett JS, Sullivan WJ Jr.

Efficacy of Guanabenz Combination Therapy Against Chronic Toxoplasmosis Across Multiple Mouse Strains.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2020 Jun 15:AAC.00539-20. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00539-20. Online ahead of print.

PMID: 32540979

Sullivan WJ Jr.

Mastering Toxoplasma sex and sleep.

Nat Microbiol. 2020 Apr;5(4):533-534. doi: 10.1038/s41564-020-0696-y. 

PMID: 32218508

Hanquier J, Gimeno T, Jeffers V, Sullivan WJ Jr.

Evaluating the GCN5b bromodomain as a novel therapeutic target against the parasite Toxoplasma gondii.

Exp Parasitol. 2020 Feb 28:107868. doi: 10.1016/j.exppara.2020.107868. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 32119930

Anwar A, Mungroo MR, Anwar A, Sullivan W, Khan NA, Siddiqui R.

Repositioning of guanabenz in conjugation with gold and silver nanoparticles against pathogenic amoebae Acanthamoeba castellanii and Naegleria fowleri.

ACS Infect Dis. 2019 Oct 15. doi: 10.1021/acsinfecdis.9b00263. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 31612700

Walters HA, Welter BH, Sullivan WJ Jr, Temesvari LA.

Phosphorylation of Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2-α in Response to Endoplasmic Reticulum and Nitrosative Stress in the human protozoan parasite, Entamoeba histolytica.

Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2019 Sep 27:111223. doi: 10.1016/j.molbiopara.2019.111223. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 31568804

Harris MT, Jeffers V, Martynowicz J, True JD, Mosley AL, Sullivan WJ Jr (2019) "A novel GCN5b lysine acetyltransferase complex associates with distinct transcription factors in the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii."

Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2019 Aug 2:111203. doi: 10.1016/j.molbiopara.2019.111203. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 31381949

Augusto L, Amin PH, Wek RC, Sullivan WJ Jr. (2019) "Regulation of arginine transport by GCN2 eIF2 kinase is important for replication of the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii."

PLoS Pathog. 2019 Jun 13;15(6):e1007746. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1007746. eCollection 2019 Jun.

PMID: 31194856

Press release.

Holmes MJ, Shah P, Wek RC, Sullivan WJ Jr. (2019) "Simultaneous Ribosome Profiling of Human Host Cells Infected with Toxoplasma gondii."

mSphere. 2019 Jun 5;4(3). pii: e00292-19. doi: 10.1128/mSphere.00292-19.

PMID: 31167946

Liu M, Li FX, Li CY, Li XC, Chen LF, Wu K, Yang PL, Lai ZF, Liu TK, Sullivan WJ Jr, Cui L, Chen XG (2019) "Characterization of protein arginine methyltransferase of TgPRMT5 in Toxoplasma gondii."

Parasit Vectors. 2019 May 8;12(1):221. doi: 10.1186/s13071-019-3464-1.

PMID: 31068219

Martynowicz J, Augusto L, Wek RC, Boehm SL 2nd, Sullivan Jr WJ. (2019) "Guanabenz Reverses a Key Behavioral Change Caused by Latent Toxoplasmosis in Mice by Reducing Neuroinflammation."

MBio. 2019 Apr 30;10(2). pii: e00381-19. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00381-19.

PMID: 31040237

ASM Press Release.

IUSM Press Release.

Article in The Conversation

Munera López J, Ganuza A, Bogado SS, Muñoz D, Ruiz DM, Sullivan WJ Jr, Vanagas L, Angel SO. (2019) "Evaluation of ATM Kinase Inhibitor KU-55933 as Potential Anti-Toxoplasma gondii Agent."

Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2019 Feb 13;9:26. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2019.00026. eCollection 2019.

PMID: 30815397

Heredero-Bermejo I, Varberg JM, Charvat R, Jacobs K, Garbuz T, Sullivan WJ Jr, Arrizabalaga G. (2018) "TgDrpC, an atypical dynamin-related protein in Toxoplasma gondii, is associated with vesicular transport factors and parasite division."

Mol Microbiol. 2018 Oct 26. doi: 10.1111/mmi.14138. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 30362624

Augusto L, Martynowicz J, Staschke KA, Wek RC, Sullivan WJ Jr. (2018) "Effects of PERK eIF2α kinase inhibitor against Toxoplasma gondii"

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. Oct 24;62(11).

PMID: 30181373

Radke JB, Worth D, Hong D, Huang S, Sullivan WJ Jr., Wilson EH, White MW. (2018) "Transcriptional repression by ApiAP2 factors is central to chronic toxoplasmosis."

PLoS Pathog. 14(5):e1007035

PMID: 29718996

Jeffers V, Tampaki Z, Kim K, Sullivan WJ Jr. (2018) "A latent ability to persist: differentiation in Toxoplasma gondii."

Cell Mol Life Sci. 75(13):2355-2373.

PMID: 29602951

Padgett LR, Lentini JM, Holmes MJ, Stilger KL, Fu D, Sullivan WJ Jr. (2018) "Elp3 and RlmN: A tale of two mitochondrial tail-anchored radical SAM enzymes in Toxoplasma gondii."

PLoS One. 2018 Jan 2;13(1):e0189688. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0189688. eCollection 2018.

PMID: 29293520

Zhang M, Gallego-Delgado J, Fernandez-Arias C, Waters NC, Rodriguez A, Tsuji M, Wek RC, Nussenzweig V, Sullivan WJ Jr. (2017) "Inhibiting the Plasmodium eIF2α Kinase PK4 Prevents Artemisinin-Induced Latency"

Cell Host Microbe. 2017 Dec 13;22(6):766-776.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2017.11.005.

PMID: 29241041


BLOG: Depriving Parasites of Their Shelter from the Storm.

Cell Preview: Plasmodium Peekaboo: PK4 Mediates Parasite Latency

Nature Reviews Microbiology: Parasite biology: Keeping Plasmodium awake

F1000Prime recommended.

Varberg JM, LaFavers KA, Arrizabalaga G, Sullivan WJ Jr. (2017) "Characterization of Plasmodium Atg3-Atg8 interaction inhibitors identifies novel alternative mechanisms of action in Toxoplasma gondii."

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017 Nov 20. pii: AAC.01489-17. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01489-17. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 29158278

Holmes MJ, Augusto LDS, Zhang M, Wek RC, Sullivan WJ Jr. (2017) "Translational Control in the Latency of Apicomplexan Parasites"

Trends Parasitol. pii: S1471-4922(17)30211-8. doi: 10.1016/ [Epub ahead of print] Review.

PMID: 28942109

Nguyen HM, Berry L, Sullivan WJ Jr, Besteiro S. (2017) "Autophagy participates in the unfolded protein response in Toxoplasma gondii"

FEMS Microbiol Lett. 15;364(15). doi: 10.1093/femsle/fnx153.

PMID: 28859319

Colinot DL, Garbuz T, Bosland MC, Wang L, Rice SE, Sullivan WJ Jr, Arrizabalaga G, Jerde TJ. (2017) "The common parasite Toxoplasma gondii induces prostatic inflammation and microglandular hyperplasia in a mouse model."

Prostate. 77(10):1066-1075. doi: 10.1002/pros.23362. 

PMID: 28497488

Huang S, Holmes MJ, Radke JB, Hong DP, Liu TK, White MW, Sullivan WJ Jr (2017) "Toxoplasma gondii AP2IX-4 regulates gene expression during bradyzoite development"

BioRxiv. doi:

mSphere. 2017 Mar 15;2(2). pii: e00054-17. doi: 10.1128/mSphere.00054-17.

PMID: 28317026

Radke JB, Worth D, Hong DP, Huang S, Sullivan WJ Jr, Wilson EH, White MW (2017) "Transcriptional repression by ApiAP2 factors is central to chronic toxoplasmosis" 

BioRxiv. doi:


Ovciarikova J, Lemgruber L, Stilger KL, Sullivan WJ Jr, Sheiner L. (2017) "Mitochondrial behavior throughout the lytic cycle of Toxoplasma gondii."

Sci Rep. 2017 Feb 16;7:42746. doi: 10.1038/srep42746.

PMID: 28202940

Jeffers V, Kamau ET, Srinivasan AR, Harper J, Sankaran P, Post SE, Varberg JM, Sullivan WJ Jr, Boyle JP. (2017). "TgPRELID, a Mitochondrial Protein Linked to Multidrug Resistance in the Parasite Toxoplasma gondii."

mSphere. 2017 Feb 1;2(1). pii: e00229-16. doi: 10.1128/mSphere.00229-16.

PMID: 28168222


Jeffers V, Yang C, Huang S, Sullivan WJ Jr. (2017) "Bromodomains in Protozoan Parasites: Evolution, Function, and Opportunities for Drug Development."

Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 81(1). pii: e00047-16. doi: 10.1128/MMBR.00047-16. Review.

PMID: 28077462

Padgett LR, Arrizabalaga G, Sullivan WJ Jr. (2017) "Targeting of tail-anchored membrane proteins to subcellular organelles in Toxoplasma gondii."

Traffic. doi: 10.1111/tra.12464. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 27991712

Hendrick HM, Welter BH, Hapstack MA, Sykes SE, Sullivan WJ Jr, Temesvari LA. (2016) "Phosphorylation of Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2α during Stress and Encystation in Entamoeba Species." PLoS Pathog. 12(12):e1006085. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006085.

PMID: 27930733

Jeffers V, Gao H, Checkley LA, Liu Y, Ferdig MT, Sullivan WJ Jr. (2016) "Garcinol inhibits GCN5-mediated lysine acetyltransferase activity and prevents replication of the parasite Toxoplasma gondii." Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016 Jan 25. pii: AAC.03059-15. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 26810649


Varberg JM, Padgett LR, Arrizabalaga G, Sullivan WJ Jr. (2016) "TgATAT-Mediated α-Tubulin Acetylation Is Required for Division of the Protozoan ParasiteToxoplasma gondii". mSphere. 1(1)



Liu J, He Y, Benmerzouga I, Sullivan WJ Jr, Morrissette NS, Murray JM, Hu K. (2015) An ensemble of specifically targeted proteins stabilizes cortical microtubules in the human parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Mol Biol Cell. 27(3):549-71. Epub 2015 Dec 17.

PMID: 26680740



Sullivan WJ Jr and Gilk S. (2015) "Preventing friendly fire in the war on microbes". Sci Tranl Med. 7(331): pp. 311fs43.

PMID: 26511506


Benmerzouga I, Checkley LA, Ferdig MT, Arrizabalaga G, Wek RC, Sullivan WJ Jr. (2015) Guanabenz repurposed as an anti-parasitic with activity against acute and latent toxoplasmosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 59(11):6939-45.

PMID: 26303803




Herman J, Pepper LR, Cortese JF, Estiu G, Galinsky K, Zuzarte-Luis V, Deryshire ER, Ribacke U, Lukens AK, Santos SA, Patel V, Clish CB, Sullivan Jr WJ, Zhou H, Bopp SE, Schimmel P, Lindquist S, Clardy J, Mota MM, Keller TL, Whitman M, Wiest O, Wirth DF, Mazitschek R. (2015) The cytoplasmic prolyl-tRNA synthetase of the malaria parasite is a dual-stage target of febrifugine and its analogs. Sci Tranl Med. 7(288): p.288ra77.


Bouchut A, Chawla AR, Jeffers V, Hudmon A, Sullivan WJ Jr. Proteome-Wide Lysine Acetylation in Cortical Astrocytes and Alterations That Occur during Infection with Brain Parasite Toxoplasma gondii. PLOS ONE. 2015 Mar 18;10(3):e0117966. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0117966. eCollection 2015.

PMID: 25786129

PRESS RELEASE. Featured on IFLScience.

Included in the PLOS ONE Editor’s Pick’s Collection Microbiology.


Arrizabalaga G and Sullivan WJ Jr. Common Parasite Could Manipulate Our Behavior. Scientific American MIND. 2015 Mar; 26(2).

This article was also featured on


Bogado SS, Dalmasso C, Ganuza A, Kim K, Sullivan WJ Jr, Angel SO, Vanagas L. Canonical histone H2Ba and H2A.X dimerize in an opposite genomic localization to H2A.Z/H2B/Z dimers in Toxoplasma gondii. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2014 Oct 5. pii: S0166-6851(14)00139-X. doi: 10.1016/j.molbiopara.2014.09.009. [Epub ahead of print]

PMid: 25286383


Liu M, Miao J, Liu T, Sullivan WJ Jr, Cui L, Chen X. Characterization of TgPuf1, a member of the Puf family RNA-binding proteins fromToxoplasma gondii. Parasit Vectors. 2014 Mar 31;7(1):141.

PMid: 24685055


Wang J, Dixon SE, Ting LM, Liu TK, Jeffers V, Croken MM, Calloway M, Cannella D, Ali Hakimi M, Kim K, Sullivan WJ Jr. Lysine Acetyltransferase GCN5b Interacts with AP2 Factors and Is Required for Toxoplasma gondii Proliferation. PLoS Pathog. 2014 Jan;10(1):e1003830. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003830. Epub 2014 Jan 2.

PMid: 24391497



Konrad C, Wek RC, Sullivan WJ Jr. GCN2-like eIF2α kinase manages the amino acid starvation response in Toxoplasma gondii. Int J Parasitol. 2014 Feb;44(2):139-46.

PMid: 24126185


Nardelli SC, Che FY, Silmon de Monerri NC, Xiao H, Nieves E, Madrid-Aliste C, Angel SO, Sullivan WJ Jr, Angeletti RH, Kim K, Weiss LM. The Histone Code of Toxoplasma gondii Comprises Conserved and Unique Posttranslational Modifications. MBio. 2013 Dec 10;4(6).

PMid: 24327343


Stilger KL and Sullivan WJ Jr. Elp3 lysine acetyltransferase is a tail-anchored mitochondrial protein in Toxoplasma gondii. J Biol Chem. 2013. 288(35):25318-29.

PMid: 23878194

Featured in ASBMB Today.


Miao J, Lawrence M, Jeffers V, Zhao F, Parker D, Ge Y, Sullivan WJ Jr, Cui L. Extensive lysine acetylation occurs in evolutionarily conserved metabolic pathways and parasite-specific functions during Plasmodium falciparum intraerythrocytic development. Mol Microbiol. 2013 Jun 24. doi: 10.1111/mmi.12303. [Epub ahead of print].

PMid: 23796209


Joyce BR, Tampaki Z, Kim K, Wek RC, Sullivan WJ Jr. The Unfolded Protein Response in the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii features translational and transcriptional control. Eukaryot Cell. 2013 Jul;12(7):979-89.

PMid: 23666622


Radke JB, Lucas O, De Silva EK, Ma Y, Sullivan WJ Jr, Weiss LM, Llinas M, White MW. ApiAP2 transcription factor restricts development of the Toxoplasma tissue cyst. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 2013 Apr 23;110(17):6871-6.

PMid: 23572590



Konrad C, Queener SF, Wek RC, Sullivan WJ Jr. Inhibitors of eIF2α Dephosphorylation Slow Replication and Stabilize Latency in Toxoplasma gondii. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013 Apr;57(4):1815-1822.

PMid: 23380722



Xue B*, Jeffers V*, Sullivan WJ+, Uversky VN+. Protein intrinsic disorder in the acetylome of intracellular and extracellular Toxoplasma gondii. Mol Biosyst. 2013 Apr 5;9(4):645-57. doi: 10.1039/c3mb25517d.

PMid: 23403842. * joint first-author, + joint corresponding author.


Lindner SE, Mikolajczak SA, Vaughan AM, Moon W, Joyce BR, Sullivan WJ Jr, Kappe SH. Perturbations of Plasmodium Puf2 Expression and RNA-seq of Puf2-Deficient Sporozoites Reveal a Critical Role in Maintaining RNA Homeostasis and Parasite Transmissibility. Cell Microbiol. 2013 Jan 29. doi: 10.1111/cmi.12116. [Epub ahead of print] PMid: 23356439


Zhang M, Joyce BR, Sullivan WJ Jr, Nussenzweig V. Translational control in Plasmodium and Toxoplasma parasites. Eukaryot Cell. 2013 Feb;12(2):161-7.

PMid: 23243065

Featured at "Mapping Ignorance"


Vanagas L, Jeffers V, Bogado SS, Dalmasso MC, Sullivan WJ Jr, Angel SO. Toxoplasma histone acetylation remodelers as novel drug targets. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2012 Oct;10(10):1189-201.

PMid: 23199404


Jeffers V and Sullivan WJ Jr. Lysine acetylation is widespread on proteins of diverse function and localization in the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Eukaryotic Cell. 2012 Jun;11(6):735-42.

PMid: 22544907


Zhang M, Mishra S, Sakthivel R, Rojas M, Ranjan R, Sullivan WJ Jr, Fontoura BM, Ménard R, Dever TE, Nussenzweig V. PK4, a eukaryotic initiation factor 2α(eIF2α) kinase, is essential for the development of the erythrocytic cycle of Plasmodium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Mar 6;109(10):3956-61. Epub 2012 Feb 21.

PMid: 22355110


Figueras MJ, Martin OA, Echeverria PC, de Miguel N, Naguleswaran A, Sullivan WJ Jr, Corvi MM, Angel SO. Toxoplasma gondii Sis1-like J-domain protein is a cytosolic chaperone associated to HSP90/HSP70 complex. Int J Biol Macromol. 2012 Apr 1;50(3):725-33. Epub 2011 Dec 23.

PMid: 22209934


Sullivan WJ Jr, Jeffers V. Mechanisms of Toxoplasma gondii persistence and latency. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2012 May;36(3):717-33.

PMid: 22091606


Konrad C, Wek RC, Sullivan WJ Jr. A GCN2-like eukaryotic initiation factor 2 kinase increases the viability of extracellular Toxoplasma gondii parasites. Eukaryot Cell. 2011 Nov;10(11):1403-12. Epub 2011 Sep 9.

PMid: 21908594


Dalmasso MC, Sullivan WJ, Angel SO. Canonical and variant histones of protozoan parasites. Front Biosci. 2011 Jun 1;17:2086-2105.

PMid: 21622164


Onyango DO, Naguleswaran A, Delaplane S, Reed A, Kelley MR, Georgiadis MM, Sullivan WJ Jr. Base excision repair apurinic/apyrimidinic endonucleases in apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. DNA Repair (Amst). 2011 May 5;10(5):466-75. Epub 2011 Feb 24.



Joyce BR, Konrad C, Wek RC, Sullivan WJ Jr. Translation control is critical during acute and chronic stages of toxoplasmosis infection. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2011 Jan;9(1):1-3.

PMid: 21171869


Dixon SE, Bhatti MM, Uversky VN, Dunker AK, Sullivan WJ Jr. Regions of intrinsic disorder help identify a novel nuclear localization signal in Toxoplasma gondii histone acetyltransferase TgGCN5-B. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2011 Feb;175(2):192-5

PMid: 21055425


Naguleswaran A, Elias EV, McClintick J, Edenberg HJ, Sullivan WJ. Toxoplasma gondii Lysine Acetyltransferase GCN5-A Functions in the Cellular Response to Alkaline Stress and Expression of Cyst Genes. PLoS Pathog. 2010 Dec 16;6(12):e1001232.

PMid: 21179246


Joyce BR, Queener SF, Wek RC, Sullivan WJ Jr. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2{alpha} promotes the extracellular survival of obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Oct 5;107(40):17200-5

PMid: 20855600



Zhang M, Fennell C, Ranford-Cartwright L, Sakthivel R, Gueirard P, Meister S, Caspi A, Doerig C, Nussenzweig RS, Tuteja R, Sullivan WJ Jr, Roos DS, Fontoura BM, Ménard R, Winzeler EA, Nussenzweig V. The Plasmodium eukaryotic initiation factor-2{alpha} kinase IK2 controls the latency of sporozoites in the mosquito salivary glands. J Exp Med. 2010 Jul 5;207(7):1465-74.

PMid: 20584882


Dixon SE, Stilger KL, Elias EV, Naguleswaran A, Sullivan WJ Jr. A decade of epigenetic research in Toxoplasma gondii. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2010 Sep;173(1):1-9. Epub 2010 May 12.

PMid: 20470832


Vonlaufen N, Naguleswaran A, Coppens I, Sullivan WJ Jr. MYST family lysine acetyltransferase facilitates ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase-mediated DNA damage response in Toxoplasma gondii. J Biol Chem. 2010 Apr 9;285(15):11154-61. Epub 2010 Feb 16.

PMid: 20159970


Dalmasso MC, Onyango DO, Naguleswaran A, Sullivan WJ Jr, Angel SO. Toxoplasma H2A variants reveal novel insights into nucleosome composition and functions for this histone family. J Mol Biol. 2009 Sep 11;392(1):33-47. Epub 2009 Jul 14.

PMid: 19607843


Sullivan WJ Jr, Smith AT, Joyce BR. Understanding mechanisms and the role of differentiation in pathogenesis of Toxoplasma gondii: a review. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2009 Mar;104(2):155-61.

PMid: 19430637


Vonlaufen N, Kanzok SM, Wek RC, Sullivan Jr WJ. Stress response pathways in protozoan parasites.Cell Microbiol. 2008 Dec;10(12):2387-99. Epub 2008 Aug 1. Review.

PMid: 18647172


Behnke MS, Radke JB, Smith AT, Sullivan WJ Jr, White MW. The transcription of bradyzoite genes in Toxoplasma gondii is controlled by autonomous promoter elements.Mol Microbiol. 2008 Jun;68(6):1502-18. Epub 2008 Apr 21.

PMid: 18433450


Narasimhan J, Joyce BR, Naguleswaran A, Smith AT, Livingston MR, Dixon SE, Coppens I, Wek RC, Sullivan WJ Jr. Translation regulation by eIF2 kinases in the development of latent cysts in Toxoplasma gondii.J Biol Chem. 2008 Jun 13;283(24):16591-601. Epub 2008 Apr 16.

PMid: 18420584

Featured at ScienceDaily.


Mohan A, Sullivan WJ Jr, Radivojac P, Dunker AK, Uversky VN. Intrinsic disorder in pathogenic and non-pathogenic microbes: discovering and analyzing the unfoldomes of early-branching eukaryotes.Mol Biosyst. 2008 Apr;4(4):328-40. Epub 2008 Feb 21.

PMid: 18354786


Naguleswaran A, Fialho AM, Chaudhari A, Hong CS, Chakrabarty AM, Sullivan WJ Jr. Azurin-like protein blocks invasion of Toxoplasma gondii through potential interactions with parasite surface antigen SAG1.Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008 Feb;52(2):402-8. Epub 2007 Dec 10.

PMid: 18070964


Meissner M, Agop-Nersesian C, Sullivan WJ Jr. Molecular tools for analysis of gene function in parasitic microorganisms.Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007 Jul;75(5):963-75. Epub 2007 Mar 31. Review.

PMid: 17401559


Smith AT, Livingston MR, Mai A, Filetici P, Queener SF, Sullivan WJ Jr. Quinoline Derivative MC1626, a Putative GCN5 Histone Acetyltransferase (HAT) Inhibitor, Exhibits HAT-Independent Activity against Toxoplasma gondii. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007 Mar;51(3):1109-11. Epub 2006 Dec 18.

PMid: 17178801


Sullivan WJ Jr, Naguleswaran A, Angel SO. Histones and histone modifications in protozoan parasites.Cell Microbiol. 2006 8(12):1850-61. Epub 2006 Oct 4.

PMid: 17026479


Sullivan WJ Jr, Hakimi MA. Histone mediated gene activation in Toxoplasma gondii.Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2006 Aug;148(2):109-16. Epub 2006 Apr 18.

PMid: 16644030


Bhatti MM, Livingston M, Mullapudi N, Sullivan WJ Jr. Pair of unusual GCN5 histone acetyltransferases and ADA2 homologues in the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii.Eukaryot Cell. 2006 Jan;5(1):62-76.

PMid: 16400169


Smith AT, Tucker-Samaras SD, Fairlamb AH, Sullivan WJ Jr. MYST family histone acetyltransferases in the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii.Eukaryot Cell. 2005 Dec;4(12):2057-65.

PMid: 16339723


Saksouk N, Bhatti MM, Kieffer S, Smith AT, Musset K, Garin J, Sullivan WJ Jr, Cesbron-Delauw MF, Hakimi MA. Histone-modifying complexes regulate gene expression pertinent to the differentiation of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii.Mol Cell Biol. 2005 Dec;25(23):10301-14.

PMid: 16287846


Rider SD Jr, Cai X, Sullivan WJ Jr, Smith AT, Radke J, White M, Zhu G. The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum possesses two functionally and evolutionarily divergent replication protein A large subunits.J Biol Chem. 2005 Sep 9;280(36):31460-9. Epub 2005 Jul 11.

PMid: 16014411


Sullivan WJ Jr, Dixon SE, Li C, Striepen B, Queener SF. IMP dehydrogenase from the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii.Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005 Jun;49(6):2172-9.

PMid: 15917510


Nallani KC, Sullivan WJ Jr. Identification of proteins interacting with Toxoplasma SRCAP by yeast two-hybrid screening.Parasitol Res. 2005 Mar;95(4):236-42. Epub 2005 Jan 27.

PMid: 15729590


Bhatti MM, Sullivan WJ Jr. Histone acetylase GCN5 enters the nucleus via importin-alpha in protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii.J Biol Chem. 2005 Feb 18;280(7):5902-8. Epub 2004 Dec 9.

PMid: 15591057


Chaudhary K, Darling JA, Fohl LM, Sullivan WJ Jr, Donald RG, Pfefferkorn ER, Ullman B, Roos DS. Purine salvage pathways in the apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii.J Biol Chem. 2004 Jul 23;279(30):31221-7. Epub 2004 May 11.

PMid: 15140885


Sullivan WJ Jr, Narasimhan J, Bhatti MM, Wek RC. Parasite-specific eIF2 (eukaryotic initiation factor-2) kinase required for stress-induced translation control.Biochem J. 2004 Jun 1;380(Pt 2):523-31

.PMid: 14989696


Sullivan WJ Jr. Histone H3 and H3.3 variants in the protozoan pathogens Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii.DNA Seq. 2003 Jun;14(3):227-31.

PMid: 14509838


Sullivan WJ Jr, Monroy MA, Bohne W, Nallani KC, Chrivia J, Yaciuk P, Smith CK 2nd, Queener SF. Molecular cloning and characterization of an SRCAP chromatin remodeling homologue in Toxoplasma gondii.Parasitol Res. 2003 May;90(1):1-8. Epub 2003 Jan 28.

PMid: 12743798


Sullivan WJ Jr, Smith CK 2nd. Cloning and characterization of a novel histone acetyltransferase homologue from the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii reveals a distinct GCN5 family member.Gene. 2000 Jan 25;242(1-2):193-200.

PMid: 10721712


Roos DS, Crawford MJ, Donald RG, Fohl LM, Hager KM, Kissinger JC, Reynolds MG, Striepen B, Sullivan WJ Jr. Transport and trafficking: Toxoplasma as a model for Plasmodium.Novartis Found Symp. 1999;226:176-95; discussion 195-8. Review.

PMid: 10645546


Chiang CW, Carter N, Sullivan WJ Jr, Donald RG, Roos DS, Naguib FN, el Kouni MH, Ullman B, Wilson CM. The adenosine transporter of Toxoplasma gondii. Identification by insertional mutagenesis, cloning, and recombinant expression.J Biol Chem. 1999 Dec 3;274(49):35255-61.

PMid: 10575012


Darling JA, Sullivan WJ Jr, Carter D, Ullman B, Roos DS. Recombinant expression, purification, and characterization of Toxoplasma gondii adenosine kinase.Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1999 Sep 20;103(1):15-23.

PMid: 10514077


Sullivan WJ Jr, Chiang CW, Wilson CM, Naguib FN, el Kouni MH, Donald RG, Roos DS. Insertional tagging of at least two loci associated with resistance to adenine arabinoside in Toxoplasma gondii, and cloning of the adenosine kinase locus.Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1999 Sep 20;103(1):1-14.


Roos DS, Sullivan WJ, Striepen B, Bohne W, Donald RG. Tagging genes and trapping promoters in Toxoplasma gondii by insertional mutagenesis.Methods. 1997 Oct;13(2):112-22.

PMid: 9405195




Sullivan Jr WJ, Radke JR, Kim K, White MW (2014) “Epigenetic and genetic factors that regulate gene expression in Toxoplasma gondii” in Toxoplasma gondii: The Model Apicomplexan - Perspectives and Methods (2nd Edition). Eds. Weiss and Kim. Elsevier Science Ltd., London.


Jeffers V, Tampaki Z, Kim K, Sullivan Jr WJ (2014) “A latent ability to persist: differentiation in Toxoplasma gondii” in Toxoplasma gondii/host cell interactions: recent advances. Eds: Corinne Mercier and Marie-France Delauw. Bentham Science Publishers.


Arrizabalaga G, Blader, IJ, Sullivan Jr WJ (2013) “The role of host and parasite encoded kinases in Toxoplasma-host interactions” in Protein Phosphorylation in Parasites. Eds. Doerig, Spaeth, Wiese. Wiley Blackwell, Germany.


Sullivan Jr WJ (2007) “Chromatin remodeling” in Toxoplasma: Molecular and Cellular Biology. Eds. Ajioka and Soldati. Horizon Scientific Press, UK.


White MW, Sullivan Jr WJ, Behnke MS, Radke JR (2007) “Gene Regulation” in Toxoplasma gondii: The Model Apicomplexan - Perspectives and Methods. Eds. Kim and Weiss. Elsevier Science Ltd., London.




Patent issued: "Mutant Parasites for Use as Vaccines and Platforms for Screening for Compounds". (20130142829)




A complete list of articles written by Dr. Sullivan can be found here.


Thesis Dissertations


Jen Martynowicz (MD/PhD)

Jocelyne Hanquier (MS) 

Joseph Varberg (PhD) Thesis: Biochemical and pharmacological characterization of the Atg8 conjugation system in Toxoplasma gondii (6-17)

Leah Padgett (PhD) Thesis: Investigations into the function of Elp3 in Toxoplasma gondii (6-17)

Sherri Huang (MD/PhD) Thesis: AP2IX-4, a cell cycle regulated nuclear factor, modulates gene expression during bradyzoite development (3-17)

Krista Stilger (PhD) Thesis: Identification of TgElp3 as an essential, tail-anchored mitochondrial lysine acetyltransferase in the protozoan pathogen Toxoplasma (10-13)

Jiachen Wang (MS) Thesis: Lysine acetyltransferase GCN5-B regulates the expression of crucial genes in Toxoplasma (5-13)

David Onyango (PhD) Thesis: Base excision repair apurinic/apyrimidinic endonucleases in apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii (1-11)

Stacy E. Dixon (MD/PhD) Thesis: GCN5-B is a novel nuclear histone acetyltransferase that is crucial for viability in the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii (6-10)

Kelli S. Bramlett, MS Thesis: Involvement of histone acetylation in transcriptional activity of the farnesoid X receptor (7-06)

Aaron T. Smith, MS Thesis: A MYST-family histone acetylase in the protozoan pathogen Toxoplasma gondii (9-05)

Micah M. Bhatti, (MD/PhD) Thesis: Functions of the unique N-terminus of a GCN5 histone acetylase in Toxoplasma gondii (5-05)

Karuna Nallani, MS Thesis: Characterizing an SNF2-family chromatin remodeler in Toxoplasma (7-04)

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